Book Name: Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 10th Edition
Author: Vinay Kumar, Abul Abbas, Jon Aster
ISBN-10, 13: 9780323353175,9780323640251,9780323531139,9780323609920
File size: 612 MB
File format: PDF,EPUB
Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 10th Edition Pdf Book Description:
Pathology literally translates as the study of suffering more prosaically, and as applied to modern medicine, it is the study of disease. Virchow was prescient in asserting that disease originates at the cellular level, but we now appreciate that cellular pathologies arise from perturbations in molecules (genes, proteins, and metabolites) that influence cell survival and behaviors. Thus the foundation of modern pathology is understanding the cellular and molecular aberrations that give rise to diseases. It is illuminating to consider these abnormalities in the context of normal cellular structure and function, which is the subject of this introductory chapter. It is unrealistic (and even undesirable) to condense the vast and fascinating field of cell biology into a single chapter. Consequently, rather than attempting a comprehensive review, the goal here is to survey basic principles and highlight recent advances that are relevant to the mechanisms of disease that are emphasized throughout the rest of the book.
The sequencing of the human genome at the beginning of the 21st century represented a landmark achievement of biomedical science. Since then the rapidly declining cost of sequencing, the burgeoning computational capacity to mine the ensuing data, and the expanding toolkits to analyze functional outputs (genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) promise to revolutionize our understanding of health and disease. The emerging information has also revealed a breathtaking level of complexity far beyond the linear sequence of the genome. The potential of these powerful innovations to explain disease pathogenesis and drive therapeutic discovery excites and inspires scientists and the lay public alike. Noncoding DNA The human genome contains some 3.2 billion DNA base pairs. Yet, within the genome there are only about 20,000 protein-encoding genes, constituting just 1.5% of the genome. These are the blueprints that instruct the assembly of the enzymes, structural elements, and signaling molecules within the 50 trillion cells that make up the human body. Although 20,000 underestimates the actual number of encoded proteins (many genes produce multiple RNA transcripts that translate to different protein isoforms), it is nevertheless startling to realize that worms, which are composed of fewer than 1000 cells and have 30-fold smaller genomes also have about 20,000 protein-encoding genes. Many of these proteins are recognizable homologs of molecules expressed in humans. What then separates humans from worms?
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