Pdf Book Name: Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections 10th Edition
Author: Martha R. Taylor, Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, Kelly A. Hogan, Jane B. Reece
ISBN-10, 13: 9780135269169,0135269164
Pages: 928 / 923 Pages
File size: 211 MB
File format: PDF,EPUB
Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections 10th Edition Pdf Book Description:
Visualizing the Concept Modules bring dynamic visuals and text together to walk students through tough concepts. The ninth edition features 28 of these immersive modules. Select modules are assignable in Mastering Biology as animated videos. Although it may seem like a modern field, biotechnology, the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products, actually dates back to the dawn of civilization. Consider such ancient practices as the use of yeast to make beer and bread, and the selective breeding of livestock, dogs, and other animals. But when people use the term bio technology today, they are usually referring to DNA technology, modern laboratory techniques for studying and manipulating genetic material. Using these methods, scientists can, for instance, extract genes from one organism and transfer them to another, effectively moving genes between species as different as Escherichia coli bacteria, papaya, and fish.
To begin, the biologist isolates two kinds of DNA: O a bacterial plasmid (usually from the bacterium E. coli) that will serve as the vector, or gene carrier, and 0 the DNA from another organism (“foreign” DNA) that includes the gene that codes for protein V (gene V) along with other, unwanted genes. The DNA containing gene V could come from a variety of sources, such as a different bacterium, a plant, a nonhuman animal, or even human tissue cells growing in laboratory culture. E) The researcher treats both the plasmid and the gene V source DNA with an enzyme that cuts DNA. An enzyme is chosen that cleaves the plasmid in only one place. O The source DNA, which is usually much longer in sequence than the plasmid, may be cut into many fragments, only one of which carries gene V. The figure shows the processing of just one DNA fragment and one plasmid, but actually, millions of plasmid s and DNA fragments, most of which do not contain gene V, are treated simultaneously. The cut DNA from both sources-the plasmid and target gene- are mixed. The single stranded ends of the plasmid base-pair with the complementary ends of the target DNA fragment. Gene cloning can be used for two basic purposes. Copies of the gene itself can be the immediate product, to be used in additional genetic engineering projects. For example, a pest-resistance gene present in one plant species might be cloned and transferred into plants of another species. Other times, the protein product of the cloned gene is harvested
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